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Free Software Foundation

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Dołączył: 31 Lip 2013
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PostWysłany: Sro Lip 31, 2013 23:43    Temat postu: Free Software Foundation Odpowiedz z cytatem

Free Software Foundation
TheFree Software Foundation(FSF) is a non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, a movement which promotes the universal freedom to create, distribute and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License. The FSF is incorporated in Massachusetts, USA.
From its founding until the mid-1990s, FSF's funds were mostly used to employ software developers to write free software for the GNU Project. Since the mid-1990s, the FSF's employees and volunteers have mostly worked on legal and structural issues for the free software movement and the free software community.
Consistent with its goals, only free software is used on FSF's computers.
The Free Software Foundation was founded in 1985 as a non-profit corporation supporting free software development. It continued existing GNU projects such as the sale of manuals and tapes, and employed developers of the free software system. Since then, it has continued these activities, as well as advocating for the free software movement. The FSF is also the steward of several free software licenses, meaning they publish them and have the ability to make revisions as needed.
In March 2003, SCO filed suit against IBM alleging that IBM's contributions to various free software, including FSF's GNU, violated SCO's rights. While FSF was never a party to the lawsuit, FSF was subpoenaed on November 5, 2003. During 2003 and 2004, FSF put substantial advocacy effort into responding to the lawsuit and quelling its negative impact on the adoption and promotion of free software.
In 2007, the FSF published the third version of the GNU General Public License after significant outside input.
The FSF holds the copyrights on many pieces of the GNU system, such as GNU Compiler Collection. As holder of these copyrights, it has the authority to enforce the copyleft requirements of the GNU General Public License (GPL) when copyright infringement occurs on that software. While other copyright holders of other software systems adopted the GPL as their license, FSF was the only organization to regularly assert its copyright interests on software so licensed[potrzebne źródło] until Harald Welte launched in 2004.[potrzebne źródło]
From 1991 until 2001, GPL enforcement was done informally, usually by Stallman himself, often with assistance from FSF's lawyer, Eben Moglen.[potrzebne źródło] Typically, GPL violations during this time were cleared up by short email exchanges between Stallman and the violator.[potrzebne źródło]
In late 2001, Bradley M. Kuhn (then Executive Director), with the assistance of Moglen, David Turner, and Peter T. Brown, formalized these efforts into FSF's GPL Compliance Labs. From 2002-2004, high profile GPL enforcement cases, such as those against Linksys and OpenTV, became frequent.
GPL enforcement and educational campaigns on GPL compliance was a major focus of the FSF's efforts during this period.
In December 2008 FSF filed a lawsuit against Cisco for using GPL-licensed components shipped with Linksys products. Cisco was notified of the licensing issue in 2003 but Cisco repeatedly disregarded its obligations under the GPL. In May 2009, FSF dropped the lawsuit when Cisco agreed to make a monetary donation to the FSF and appoint a Free Software Director to conduct continuous reviews of the company's license compliance practices.
From 2003 to 2005, FSF held legal seminars to explain the GPL and the law around it. Usually taught by Bradley M. Kuhn and Daniel Ravicher, these seminars offered CLE credit and were the first effort to give formal legal education on the GPL.
Current and ongoing activities
The GNU project
The original purpose of the FSF was to promote the ideals of free software. The organization developed the GNU operating system as an example of this.
GNU licenses
The GNU General Public License (GPL) is a widely used license for free software projects. The current version (version 3) was released in June 2007. The FSF has also published the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), the GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL), and the GNU Affero General Public License (AGPL).
GNU Press
The FSF's publishing department, responsible for "publishing affordable books on computer science using freely distributable licenses."
The Free Software Directory 
This is a listing of software packages that have been verified as free software. Each package entry contains 47 pieces of information such as the project's homepage, developers, programming language, etc. The goals are to provide a search engine for free software, and to provide a cross-reference for users to check if a package has been verified as being free software. FSF has received a small amount of funding from UNESCO for this project. It is hoped that the directory can be translated into many languages in the future.
Maintaining the Free Software Definition 
FSF maintains many of the documents that define the free software movement.
Project hosting
FSF hosts software development projects on their Savannah website.
Political campaigns 
FSF sponsors a number of campaigns against what it perceives as dangers to software freedom, including software patents, digital rights management (which the FSF has re-termed "digital restrictions management", as part of their effort to highlight their view that such technologies are "designed to take away and limit your rights,") and user interface copyright. Defective by Design is an FSF-initiated campaign against DRM. They also have a campaign to promote Ogg+Vorbis, a free alternative to proprietary formats like MP3 and AAC. They also sponsor some free software projects that are deemed to be "high-priority".
Annual awards
"Award for the Advancement of Free Software" and "Free Software Award for Projects of Social Benefit"
High priority projects[img]//[/img]gNewSense is a distribution officially supported by theFSFThe FSF maintains a list of "high priority projects" to which the Foundation claims that "there is a vital need to draw the free software community's attention". The FSF considers these projects "important because computer users are continually being seduced into using non-free software, because there is no adequate free replacement."
Previous projects highlighted as needing work included the Free Java implementations, GNU Classpath, and GNU Compiler for Java, which ensure compatibility for the Java part of, and the GNOME desktop environment (see Java: Licensing).[potrzebne źródło]
The effort has been criticized for either not instigating active development or for being slow at the work being done, even after certain projects were added to the list.
- 1999: Linus Torvalds for Open Source Computing
- 2005: Prix Ars Electronica Award of Distinction in the category of "Digital Communities"
The FSF's board of directors is:
- Hal Abelson, Founding member, Professor of Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (served from inception until March 5, 1998, and rejoined circa 2005)
- Geoffery Knauth, Senior Software Engineer at SFA, Inc. (served since October 23, 1997)
- Henry Poole, Founder of CivicActions, a grassroots campaign technology consulting firm. (served since December 12, 2002)
- Richard Stallman, Founding President, launched the GNU project, author of the GNU General Public License (served as President since inception)
- Gerald Jay Sussman, Professor of Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (served since inception)
- Benjamin Mako Hill, graduate student at the MIT Media Lab. (served since July 25, 2007)
- Bradley Kuhn, Executive Director of the Software Freedom Conservancy and FSF's former Executive Director (served since March 25, 2010)
Previous board members include:
- Lawrence Lessig, Professor of Law at Stanford University (served since March 28, 2004 until 2008)
- Robert J. Chassell, Founding Treasurer, as well as a Founding Director (served from inception until June 3, 1997)
- Len Tower Jr., Founding member, served until September 2, 1997
- Miguel de Icaza (served from August 1999 until February 25, 2002.)
- Eben Moglen (served from July 28, 2000 until 2007)
The FSF Board of Directors is elected by the Voting Membership, whose powers include at least this are outlined in the by-laws:

In addition to the right to elect Directors as provided in the by-laws and such other powers and rights as may be vested in them by law, these Articles of Organization or the by-laws, the Voting Members shall have such other powers and rights as the Directors may designate.
—Articles of Amendment, Free Software Foundation, Inc.

There are currently no known documents available that indicate the composition of the FSF's Voting Membership.[potrzebne źródło]
John Sullivan is the current FSF Executive Director. Previous members that occupied the position were Peter Brown (2005–2010) and Bradley M. Kuhn (2001–2005).
At any given time, there are usually around a dozen employees. Most, but not all, work at the FSF headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts.
Eben Moglen and Dan Ravicher previously served individually as pro bono legal counsel to the FSF. Since the forming of the Software Freedom Law Center, legal services to the FSF are provided by that organization.
On November 25, 2002, the FSF launched the FSF Associate Membership program for individuals.Bradley M. Kuhn (FSF Executive Director, 2001–2005) launched the program and also signed up as the first Associate Member
Associate members hold a purely honorary and funding support role to the FSF.
Linus Torvalds has criticized FSF for using GPLv3 as a weapon in their fight against DRM. Torvalds argues that the issue of DRM and that of a software license should be treated as two separate issues.
On June 16, 2010, Joe Brockmeier, a journalist at Linux Magazine, criticized the Defective by Design campaign by the FSF as "negative" and "juvenile" and not being adequate for providing users with "credible alternatives" to proprietary software. FSF responded to this criticism by saying "that there is a fundamental difference between speaking out against policies or actions and smear campaigns", and "that if one is taking an ethical position, it is justified, and often necessary, to not only speak about the benefits of freedom but against acts of dispossession and disenfranchisement."
See also

- BadVista
- Defective by Design
- Electronic Frontier Foundation
- Free Software Foundation Europe
- Free Software Foundation India
- Free Software Foundation Latin America
- League for Programming Freedom
- GNU/Linux distributions supported by the FSF
- Software Freedom Law Center
- Hardware restrictions


External links
- Official website
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Dołączył: 18 Sie 2019
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PostWysłany: Nie Kwi 19, 2020 14:14    Temat postu: Odpowiedz z cytatem

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Dołączył: 16 Cze 2020
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PostWysłany: Wto Cze 16, 2020 04:15    Temat postu: Odpowiedz z cytatem

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Dołączył: 25 Sie 2020
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PostWysłany: Wto Sie 25, 2020 06:35    Temat postu: Odpowiedz z cytatem

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